Bruckenkopf Warschau and attractions in Józefów
Brückenkopf Warsachu is a line of fortifications from Rynia near Narwia River, through Struga, Zielonka, Stara Miłosna, Wiązowna, Józefów to Vistula River. First works started in 1915- from this time fortifications were rebuilt many times till 1944. Nowadays, most of the fortifications are damaged and some of them are filled-in.
- The Battle of Warsaw 1920. ‘The Miracle at the Vistula River’
From 12th to 16th August ,1920 a lineBrückenkopf Warsachu was a shelter for Polish troops commanded by General Franciszek Latinik, who was defending Warsaw against Bolsheviks. After 1920 fortifications were systematically devastated, especially by local residents who were mainly looking for metal elements. In such condition fortifactions survived till 1939.
- September Campaign- 1939
While the war started in 1939, the plan of defending Warsaw and using devastated fortifications still wasn’t made. Because German troops were close to Warsaw on 10th September, 1939 some troops of the 8th and 20th Battalion garrisoned the fortifications near Beniaminów-Zielonka. However, bad situation at the front forced soldiers to abandon fortifications.
- Occupation 1940-1944. Growth of the fortifications.
Moving the borders of the Third Reich on the east made it necessary to build new lines of fortifications. That’s why in October 1939 new plan of building new line based on the Narew, Vistula and San rivers was made. Based on the extant fortifications, new one started to be built on the line Pogorzel, Świerk, Wiązowna and Zakręt. The work didn’t last long because on 14th May 1941 there was an order to stop it due to the planned attack on the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Part of the materials, which were stored for building fortifications, was sent to France to build the Atlantic Wall.
Further works started in 1944 when German troops retreated because of the Russian troops. Fortifications were built by sappers, soldiers and local residents. There were built trenches and anti-tank barriers, however not all planned works were finished.
- The present time
Nowadays there aren’t many fortifications of Brückenkopf Warsachu. In Józefów there are few devastated bunkers on private lands (one of them near the railway station) and alongside the road from Józefów to Emów (Sosnowa Street) there are remains of 6 bunkers.
Moreover, still there are:
- 3 bunkers near the airport in Góraszka: one from the First World War and rest from 1940-1941 (Regelbau 120a and Regelbau 501)
- 4 bunkers located on the west from srapyard: three objects from 1915-1916 and one Regelbau 514 from the Second World War
- 4 bunkers near the mount and monument: all from the First World War
- 2 bunkers from 1940-1941 on Dąbrowiecka Mount (Regelbau 120a and Regelbau 514, which was renovated)
- Excursion to Wiązowna
In Wiązowna there is a monument commemorating soldiers who were fighting in the Battle of Warsaw (1920) and four bunkers that are near the road no. 721.